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Entertainment-Retail Centers in Hong Kong and Los Angeles: Trends and Lessons

Clara Irazabal and Surajit Chakravarty
This paper seeks to answer the question of why Entertainment Retail Centers (ERCs) develop as they do and what we can expect from these centers of consumption in the near future. Beginning with a "network" view of cities, where cities are nodes in an integrated economic system, the paper examines the evolution of and recent trends in the design of Entertainment Retail Centers (ERCs) in Los Angeles and Hong Kong. The analysis is organized along four related themes - land use, transportation, urban design and consumption pattern. The conclusion offers lessons that each city can lean from the other's experience with ERCs.